The Fatal Shore: The Epic of Australia's Founding ePUB


The Fatal Shore: The Epic of Australia's Founding The history of the birth of Australia which came out of the suffering and brutality of England s infamous convict transportation system Withpages of illustrations andmaps One of the greatest non fiction books I ve ever readHughes brings us an entire world Los Angeles Times

  • Paperback
  • 688 pages
  • The Fatal Shore: The Epic of Australia's Founding
  • Robert Hughes
  • English
  • 12 March 2017
  • 0394753666

About the Author: Robert Hughes

Robert Studley Forrest Hughes, AO was an Australian art critic, writer and television documentary maker who has resided in New York since 1970 He was educated at St Ignatius College, Riverview before going on to study arts and then architecture at the University of Sydney At university, Hughes associated with the Sydney Push a group of artists, writers, intellectuals and drinkers Among the group were Germaine Greer and Clive James Hughes, an aspiring artist and poet, abandoned his university endeavours to become first a cartoonist and then an art critic for the Sydney periodical The Observer, edited by Donald Horne Around this time he wrote a history of Australian painting, titled The Art of Australia, which is still considered to be an important work It was published in 1966 Hughes was also briefly involved in the original Sydney version of Oz magazine, and wrote art criticism for The Nation and The Sunday Mirror.Hughes left Australia for Europe in 1964, living for a time in Italy before settling in London, England 1965 where he wrote for The Spectator, The Daily Telegraph, The Times and The Observer, among others, and contributed to the London version of Oz In 1970 he obtained the position of art critic for TIME magazine and he moved to New York He quickly established himself in the United States as an influential art critic.In 1975, he and Don Brady provided the narration for the film Protected, a documentary showing what life was like for Indigenous Australians on Palm Island In 1980, the BBC broadcast The Shock of the New, Hughes s television series on the development of modern art since the Impressionists It was accompanied by a book of the same name its combination of insight, wit and accessibility are still widely praised In 1987, The Fatal Shore, Hughes s study of the British penal colonies and early European settlement of Australia, became an international best seller.Hughes provided commentary on the work of artist Robert Crumb in parts of the 1994 film Crumb, calling Crumb the American Breughel His 1997 television series American Visions reviewed the history of American art since the Revolution He was again dismissive of much recent art this time, sculptor Jeff Koons was subjected to criticism Australia Beyond the Fatal Shore 2000 was a series musing on modern Australia and Hughes s relationship with it Hughes s 2002 documentary on the painter Francisco Goya, Goya Crazy Like a Genius, was broadcast on the first night of the BBC s domestic digital service Hughes created a one hour update to The Shock of the New Titled The New Shock of the New, the program aired first in 2004 Hughes published the first volume of his memoirs, Things I Didn t Know, in 2006.



10 thoughts on “The Fatal Shore: The Epic of Australia's Founding

  1. Trevor Trevor says:

    This is a book I ve been meaning to get to for years I listened to this as an audio book, but about half way through it became very clear that I was going to need to buy the damn thing Kids in Australian schools both when I was growing up and also now from talking to my daughters tend to learn basically bugger all about Australian History You know, kids are told something about Captain Cook, maybe a bit about the fact that there were convicts although generally they are told these were m This is a book I ve been meaning to get to for years I listened to this as an audio book, but about half way through it became very clear that I was going to need to buy the damn thing Kids in Australian schools both when I was growing up and also now from talking to my daughters tend to learn basically bugger all about Australian History You know, kids are told something about Captain Cook, maybe a bit about the fact that there were convicts although generally they are told these were mostly sent out for minor crimes poor things during the Great UK Hanky Shortage, it is surprising how many were supposed to have been transported for stealing hankies or bread and then straight onto the gold rush and everything is just dandy.This book is certainly not the kind of stuff we were taught in high school It is an utterly devastating read The recounting of the horrors of Norfolk Island is like reading about Guantanamo Bay or Abu Ghraib on steroids Commandant after commandant arrived and, it seemed, tried to outdo the previous one in barbarity Each time you would think things simply couldn t get worse, and yet they always seemed to.Price, a new commandant set to outdo all of the previous monsters of the island, was simply perverse When ships would arrive with convicts the captain might say to him, That man is quiet and has been no trouble at all now, any normal person might be expected to show some kindness towards such a prisoner but Price did the exact opposite, believing that such a recommendation only showed the hypocritical nature of the convict There is speculation that Price was one of those stereotypical repressed homosexuals that projects his self loathing onto those around him by inflicting infinite punishments on men he suspected of being homosexual There is little question he was obsessed with sodomy Although, to be fair, he was hardly the only one As Hughes points out, taking a group of men in their twenties, removing all comforts from them in fact, whipping them literally for looking sideways or singing , removing any hope they may ever have of living through their torment and then to expect them not to seek comfort in each other s arms seems too stupid to believe.But the savagery of the punishments almost defies belief Men receiving so many lashes of the cat of nine tails that dogs were able to lick at the pools of blood left at their feet and ants could walk away with lumps of meat that had splattered from their backs Or men would receive a sentence of 300 lashes, but be given 100 one week and then being brought back a week later once their back had begun to scab over to receive another hundred often there were maggots feasting on their putrefied flesh by this stage.Often female prisoners were not able to be housed in the prison factory they were required to work in So, they had to find alternate accommodation to rent But this accommodation generally cost their entire wage With no money left over to buy food they had the choice of either prostitution or starvation As Hughes points out, none of the women were sent to Australia as prostitutes, it was not a transportable offence, but few were able to avoid being raped on the way over and then prostitution when they got here.Hughes makes it clear that not everyone sent over was as poorly treated as those on Norfolk Island or Tasmania or Morton Bay But these places existed to serve a purpose and that purpose was much like the Gulags of the Soviet Union you didn t need a large percentage of the population to be sent to such hells to make people understand it was a good idea to do their best to avoid going there.Some of the things detailed in this book defy belief The men grouping together to draw lots to see which of them would be murdered and who would be the murderer and who the witnesses to the murder was perhaps the most disturbing story I ve ever read Being good Christians they understood that suicide would mean eternal damnation and they figured they had spent enough time suffering the punishments of an arbitrary, absolute tyrant to risk God s endlessly innovative tortures So, they decided that if one of them would murder one of the other prisoners the guy murdered would get straight to heaven, the guy who killed him would get to confess his sins in Sydney to a priest before being hanged and so he would get into heaven too and those who witnessed the murder might also end up hanged too and if not, they might not be lucky and not end up being sent back to the island Therefore one welcomed murder, a kind of group euthanasia, would end up a win win win There had been a convict rebellion on Norfolk Island and after the trial a Catholic priest was sent in to tell the convicts who were to live and who were to be executed I need to quote this, as it sums up all of the horrors of the convict system better than anything else I can imagine Those who were to live wept bitterly, whilst those doomed to die, without exception, dropped to their knees, and with dry eyes, thanked God that they were to be delivered from such a place Who can describe their emotions Dear God And the living shall envy the dead.This is a fascinating book Although you might not think so from this review, there are parts of it that are quite funny Hughes has a dry as dust sense of humour Some of it might even reinforce your belief in human dignity, courage and perhaps even goodness But there is a great deal of this book that makes your blood boil An absolutely stunning book I can t praise it too highly

  2. robin friedman robin friedman says:

    A Historical MasterpieceAs luck would have it, I recently 2001 had the opportunity to make a brief business trip to Australia I knew very little about Australia and thought the best way to get some brief but non superficial background would be to learn something of its history I opted to read Robert Hughes s book which tells the story of Australia s founding and of its convict past The book is lengthy, even too lengthy to complete on the 14 hour flights from the West Coast of the United Sta A Historical MasterpieceAs luck would have it, I recently 2001 had the opportunity to make a brief business trip to Australia I knew very little about Australia and thought the best way to get some brief but non superficial background would be to learn something of its history I opted to read Robert Hughes s book which tells the story of Australia s founding and of its convict past The book is lengthy, even too lengthy to complete on the 14 hour flights from the West Coast of the United States to Sydney and back But the story was fascinating, and the book was well worth the attention and effort.Hughes tells the story of the discovery of Australia, the decision of Great Britain to transport its convicted to the continent, the various kinds of lives the convicts found there, the aboriginal settlers and their treatment by the newcomers, and the ultimate creation of a new society There are harrowing accounts of the passage from Britain to Australia in the convict ships, and still shocking accounts of the secondary places of punishment created in Australia for repeat offenders places such as Norfolk Island, Port Aurthur, and Macquarrie Bay Hughes describes these nineteenth century camps as precursors of the Gulag in our own time, and I am afraid he is correct They reminded me to of Andersonville Prison in our own Civil War but on a much broader,wicked scale The description of the prisons and barbaric punishments were to me the most vivid portions of the book.Besides the horror stories, there is a great deal of nuanced, thoughtful writing in the book about the settlement and building of Australia and of the dangers of facile over generalization about how the convicts fared, or about virtually any other historical subject Some were able to serve out their sentences and rise to prosperity and a new life Others were shamefully abused The history of the aboriginal peoples too is described and it is an unhappy subject, alas.Hughes begins with the early days of the transport and concludes when the system was finally abolished in the 1850 s as a result of protests and of the Australian gold rush.After reading this book, I thought I had realized my goal of learning something of Australia More importantly, I felt part of the land even though I hadn t seen it before and will likely never see it again Places that I read about and that were only names took on character and importance.I have read a substantial amount of United States history but hadn t read about Australia before This book is well documented, eloquently written and has a feel for the pulse of its subject It is an outstanding work of history and is sure to broaden the human perspective of the reader Robin Friedman

  3. Jason Koivu Jason Koivu says:

    A really solid look at Australia s ignoble European invasion The British turned the native soil of the Australian Aboriginal people into a prison island Author Robert Hughes does an excellent job of giving the reader an overall idea of what it was like to be transported to this distant penal colony, which was tantamount to a death sentence Just surviving the voyage was torture enough Once the poor prisoners yes, I have some sympathy for some of the prisoners, whose crimes could be as incons A really solid look at Australia s ignoble European invasion The British turned the native soil of the Australian Aboriginal people into a prison island Author Robert Hughes does an excellent job of giving the reader an overall idea of what it was like to be transported to this distant penal colony, which was tantamount to a death sentence Just surviving the voyage was torture enough Once the poor prisoners yes, I have some sympathy for some of the prisoners, whose crimes could be as inconsequential as petty theft arrived they were greeted by a land devoid of comfort and compassion Australia is hardcore Australia does not fuck around Hughes conveys this quite well

  4. Mat Mat says:

    As an Australian, I have to say hats off truly to Robert Hughes This is a tremendously exhaustive and amazing work in which Hughes manages to trace the history of Australia in scrupulous detail In fact, there s almost too much detail but for me, I just lapped it up Much of the details about indentured men were new to me This should, without a doubt, be required reading in history classes in Australia Absolutely fantastic In fact, I learntby reading this book than I did from 2 yea As an Australian, I have to say hats off truly to Robert Hughes This is a tremendously exhaustive and amazing work in which Hughes manages to trace the history of Australia in scrupulous detail In fact, there s almost too much detail but for me, I just lapped it up Much of the details about indentured men were new to me This should, without a doubt, be required reading in history classes in Australia Absolutely fantastic In fact, I learntby reading this book than I did from 2 years of history classes at high school It s all here the slow destruction of the Aborigines by both diseases brought by the white man to which they had no immunity as well as the rampant slaughter of the natives of Tasmania, the plight of the convicts whose lot was perhaps even worse than the natives including the horrid and hard history of Van Diemen s Land modern day Tasmania and even worse the plight of those who were sent to Norfolk Island something I knew nothing about until I read this book There are, of course and fortunately, tales of courage which will warm the cockles of any Aussie s heart.Most importantly I leanred where the Australian concept of mateship from g day mate came from Many of the early Australians suffered together that is, they faced common hardships one example is the fellowship that was spawned from chain gangs And what a legacy it has produced If you go to Australia today, you will see much beauty the beauty of the Blue Mountains, the rainforests up north, the white beaches and especially the Great Barrier Reef but what is striking about it all, after reading this book, is how deceptive that beauty is a beauty which has managed to hide all of the many tales of woe and struggle that can be found in Australia s past I read this book about 8 years ago and it s nigh time I pick it up again and brush up on the history of my own country I owe it to my ancestors I cannot recommend this book highly enough Superb P.S Someone did tell me though that some of Hughes research has recently been challenged I will find out whether these claims are substantiated or not and edit this review accordingly, if need be

  5. Lauren Albert Lauren Albert says:

    I first read this in college when the paperback came out in 1988 I remember being enthralled by it which was notable since I wasn t at that time a history reader I had years of thinking I should re read it and never did What a wonderful book It is not a pretty story not because the people who settled it were convicts, especially since many were, by our standards, minor offenders or political prisoners, but because of the conditions they faced and the treatment they received It was not pret I first read this in college when the paperback came out in 1988 I remember being enthralled by it which was notable since I wasn t at that time a history reader I had years of thinking I should re read it and never did What a wonderful book It is not a pretty story not because the people who settled it were convicts, especially since many were, by our standards, minor offenders or political prisoners, but because of the conditions they faced and the treatment they received It was not pretty for those in charge either for that matter There were so many details that I won t go into them all just read the book It s worth it

  6. Rob Rob says:

    I find that Robert Hughes writing is, well, florid He writes well but he is just too adjectival for my tastes As a big slice of information and ideas this is a good book but not a great book I would have no hesitation about recommending it, but there are better books such as John Hirst s book Convict Society And It s Enemies Hughes analysis is pretty good and I do find that even though I thought I knew how grim the early period of European Australian history was, I was not prepared for the I find that Robert Hughes writing is, well, florid He writes well but he is just too adjectival for my tastes As a big slice of information and ideas this is a good book but not a great book I would have no hesitation about recommending it, but there are better books such as John Hirst s book Convict Society And It s Enemies Hughes analysis is pretty good and I do find that even though I thought I knew how grim the early period of European Australian history was, I was not prepared for the cruelty and sadism described by this book More so than the British navy Australia was founded on rum, sodomy and the lash.On the influence on the Australia of today I think Hughes is basically right In Tasmania the influence was woeful, especially with the coupling of being an island People generally want to get off islands and the young and ambitious Tasmanians have over the past 160 years There is a legacy of convictry in Tasmania much like that of slavery in the deep south of America In NSW, because they receivedIrish convicts and there was a leavening ofIrish politicals, this in time meant that the working class in NSW and the East Coast generally developed a chip on their shoulders about the Australian Protestant ruling class.In the end the book was too much of chore How many florid descriptions of floggings can a reader take

  7. John Farebrother John Farebrother says:

    Adjectives fail me to describe the stupendous scope and brilliance of this book Epic is right It is a history of early Australia, on the one hand of the native inhabitants, the Aborigines, and on the other, of the wretched souls who found themselves transported to the other side of the world, and who quickly supplanted them The good the bad and the ugly The author s detailed researches appear to have left no stone unturned, as he reveals even the taboo aspects of multitudes of desperate huma Adjectives fail me to describe the stupendous scope and brilliance of this book Epic is right It is a history of early Australia, on the one hand of the native inhabitants, the Aborigines, and on the other, of the wretched souls who found themselves transported to the other side of the world, and who quickly supplanted them The good the bad and the ugly The author s detailed researches appear to have left no stone unturned, as he reveals even the taboo aspects of multitudes of desperate humanity forced to live together in unsanitary and inhuman conditions He also describes the British regime in Australia as the closest thing to a police state that ever existed in British territory, which after reading the book, I can only agree with But it is not only the scope, detail and understanding of the book that makes it remarkable It is highly readable, indeed hard to put down I knew very little about Australia before I read this book, which I bought because it was recommended on Channel 4 News on the occasion of the author s death in 2012 Now I feel I have a thorough understanding of the issues and events that made Australia and Australians what they are today

  8. Jill Hutchinson Jill Hutchinson says:

    An amazing book This 600 page tome covers the founding of Australia from the First Fleet of the transportation of convicts landing at Botany Bay through the end of the transportation in 1868 The continent of Australia was an enormous jail and the author uses letters, diaries, and other written history to paint a picture of inhumanity that readslike fiction As he spins his tale, he destroys some of the myths that Australians still accept as truths and verifies others through his impec An amazing book This 600 page tome covers the founding of Australia from the First Fleet of the transportation of convicts landing at Botany Bay through the end of the transportation in 1868 The continent of Australia was an enormous jail and the author uses letters, diaries, and other written history to paint a picture of inhumanity that readslike fiction As he spins his tale, he destroys some of the myths that Australians still accept as truths and verifies others through his impeccable research We travel along the coasts, over the Blue Mountains to the island of Van Dieman s Land present day Tasmania and into the outback with some of the brave, often foolhardy pioneers that settled the land..escaped convicts, free men, and immigrants with the taste for adventure We see the attempted annihilation of the aborigines as the colony expanded into the continent and the ecological effects of civilization There is so much here that I suggest you read this brilliant and disturbing bookit is compelling

  9. & & says:

    This is a great book, one of the finest history books I have read covering Australia I found the book easy to read, the narrative flowed along full of facts but never dull Its not stuffy and boring like a lot of history books but a very good yarn I have sent copies to friends around the world and they have all enjoyed the book as well Its history at its best, some very interesting stories about Norfolk Island and Port Arthur and cannibal convicts, a very enjoyable tale Maybe some Australian This is a great book, one of the finest history books I have read covering Australia I found the book easy to read, the narrative flowed along full of facts but never dull Its not stuffy and boring like a lot of history books but a very good yarn I have sent copies to friends around the world and they have all enjoyed the book as well Its history at its best, some very interesting stories about Norfolk Island and Port Arthur and cannibal convicts, a very enjoyable tale Maybe some Australians aren t too happy with this side of our history but never the less its still our history and this book makes it enjoyable to read about

  10. Emily Emily says:

    I m not quite done with Robert Hughes s excellent history of The System, otherwise known as the settlement of a continent with petty criminals, but since I m actually going to Australia in a week , and I can see the writing on the wall as far as things getting crazier before I leave, I wanted to be sure to sneak in a blog entry now More specifically, I wanted to recommend this book highly despite the often brutal facts of the case, I have seldom enjoyed a history .ANYway, Hughes s prose I m not quite done with Robert Hughes s excellent history of The System, otherwise known as the settlement of a continent with petty criminals, but since I m actually going to Australia in a week , and I can see the writing on the wall as far as things getting crazier before I leave, I wanted to be sure to sneak in a blog entry now More specifically, I wanted to recommend this book highly despite the often brutal facts of the case, I have seldom enjoyed a history .ANYway, Hughes s prose is crisp and readable, and he has a fantastic story to tell The Fatal Shore is not a novel, but it consistently evokes times, places and situations that make me want to read or even write fiction set in early colonial Australia He has a fine eye for detail, and uses primary sources to great advantage I find that biography and history sometimes struggle with the constant transition between covering broad trends and including enough specific detail to keep things interesting, but Hughes has the technique down Witness his description of the arrival in Van Diemen s Land now Tasmania of the mediocre early Lieutenant Governor Thomas Davey The two men hated one another on sight Davey thought Macquerie a Scottish prig and Macquerie considered his new lieutenant governor a wastrel and a drunk, who manifested an extraordinary degree of frivolity and low buffoonery in his manners So he did Davey marked his arrival in Hobart Town in February 1813 by lurching to the ship s gangway, casting an owlish look at his new domain and emptying a bottle of port over his wife s hat He then took off his coat, remarking that the place was as hot as Hades, and marched uphill to Government House in his shirtsleeves Nicknamed Mad Tom by the settlers, he would later make it his custom to broach a keg of rum outside Government House on royal birthdays and ladle it out to the passerby As well as enjoying the hilarious image of port being emptied over Davey s wife s hat, I love how this short passage communicates vividly and succinctly so much about the dueling characters of the two colonial administrators Also, low buffoonery Definitely going in my arsenal of excellent old timey put downs.Hughes s talent for choosing just the right detail to resonate and amaze is spot on Describing the widespread myth among early Irish convicts in Australia that there existed an overland route to China, and the tragic escape attempts that resulted, he notes that Since none of them had a compass and few possessed any idea of how to use it even if they had had one , they went out armed with a magical facsimile consisting of a circle crudely sketched on paper or bark with the cardinal points but no needle What couldforcibly communicate the pathetic desperation of these people, uprooted from everything familiar and dumped into a foreign and hostile environment Likewise, when Hughes is describing what passed for education at the boys jail at Point Puer in Van Diemen s Land, where children were put through perfunctory scholastic and religious paces after a twelve or fourteen hour day of hard labor, he relates that a few of the boys could parrot bits of an Anglican catechism, but none could recite the Commandments in correct order or show much grasp of scriptural history Even their hymn singing had declined, to the point that the screaming is almost intolerable to any person whose ears have not been rendered callous The image of the exhausted, damp and caterwauling boys, often transported for trifles like stealing two pairs of stockings, is both chilling and touching Also chilling is this passage about the children of soldiers and free settlers, who played flogging games and judgment games as freely as their descendents would play bushrangers I have observed children playing, wrote one colonial observer in 1850, at the Botany Bay game of Courts and Petty Sessions, and noted the cruel sentences which were uniformly passed on those who were doomed to be damned, and the favour and partiality which was extended to others Justice appeared never to be thought of the gratification of a licentious and an unlimited Power being all they sought Although I m not one to idealize the innocence of children, this paragraph certainly gives a clear view of the dark side of culture formation And there is plenty of dark stuff in The Fatal Shore, from sadistic prison wardens to snobbish would be aristocrats, to prisoners whose flesh was crawling with maggots while they were still alive Yes, there s even a vivid first person account of cannibalism The most difficult chapters for me to read, though, were those dealing with the plight of women and Aborigines, and with the role of homosexuality in the colony This book comes right on the heels, for me, of James Wilson s The Earth Shall Weep A History of Native America, and there were some depressing similarities between the two histories, despite an entire hemisphere s separation The insane sense of entitlement felt and exercised by the European colonists the gradual or not so gradual descent into a cycle of violence the issuance of self righteous tracts setting down legal boundaries, which the native people are unable to read as they are available solely in English it all rings unpleasantly familiar in the ears of a United States citizen Perhaps the most confusing and circular part of European Native relations in both America and Australia, is Europeans fixation on a settled, capitalist existence as the only kind of life they were willing to acknowledge as legitimate On both continents, the colonists assumed that nomadic peoples were wasting the land, that their movable lifestyle obliterated any claim they may have had to it a tragedy of epic proportions, considering that connection to the land was usually muchintegral to the native peoples sense of self than it ever was to Europeans Equally galling to the European interlopers was the lack of a fiat money system among native peoples, which the Europeans, tellingly, took as a sign of godlessness and dissipation This is especially ironic in Australia, which was being settled in the first place because England had come to so fetishize Property that people were sentenced to death for offenses like poaching a rabbit, stealing a length of ribbon, or cutting down an ornamental shrub As a newborn infant could have predicted, this led to SO MANY death sentences that most of them had to be commuted, hence the waves of convicts and their attendant administrators, eager to convert the natives to their own property loving way of life In Tasmania, as in the American south east, native people were herded into what were essentially concentration camps, where they were shown how to buy and sell things, so that they might acquire a reverence for property Awesome idea, guys And those were the progressive settlers most just wanted to kill as many natives as possible.The chapters on treatment of women was also horrifying Much of it, such as the passage describing how the new female convicts were sold at the country store, were grotesque parodies of still familiar attitudes The same woman might be sold several times during her Norfolk Island sentence, with Potter in most cases reselling them for a gallon or two of rum until they were in such a Condition as to be of little or no further use The sales would be held in an old store where the women had to strip naked and race around the room while Potter kept up a running commentary on their respective values Female convicts were essentially the slaves of slaves, but the most infuriating part from an intellectual perspective is that they were looked down on as prostitutes as a result Even female convicts who were never sold and re sold on Norfolk Island, even those who had long term, loving relationships, were viewed as whores by the self styled respectable colonists As the historian Michael Sturma points out, the idea that the convicts shared the same ideas about sexual behavior as their superiors is very dubious Working class s in England differed markedly from those of upper and middle classes A mong the British working class, cohabitation was prevalent It is highly unlikely that working class men, and in particular male convicts, considered the women convicts to be in some way sexually immoralThe stereotype of women convicts as prostitutes emerged froman ignorance of working class habits Huh, how eerily familiar It s disturbing how difficult it is to perceive, let alone acknowledge, value systems that differ from our own It s also interesting and problematic to me, how few modern people know about the widespread acceptance of cohabitation among the Victorian working classes The Victorian era is so often seen as the epitome of prudishness and ramrod respectability, wherein premarital sex is the Ultimate Evil that can befall a virtuous young woman, and while there was certainly truth to the stereotype, it s also important to remember that there were other realities as well If the way that misogyny played out in early Australia was tiresomely predictable, the role of homosexuality was muchcomplex, and tricky for a modern young lefty like myself to digest More on my blog

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *