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Apology Double JeopardyBe sure that if you kill the sort of man I say I am, you will not harm methan yourselves On the other hand, if I say that it is the greatest good for a man to discuss virtue every day, testing themselves and others for the unexamined life is not worth living for men, you will believe me even less Socrates, of The Apology is an eloquent figure who is an unrivaled guide to the good life the thoughtful life, and he is as relevant today as he was in ancient At Double JeopardyBe sure that if you kill the sort of man I say I am, you will not harm methan yourselves On the other hand, if I say that it is the greatest good for a man to discuss virtue every day, testing themselves and others for the unexamined life is not worth living for men, you will believe me even less Socrates, of The Apology is an eloquent figure who is an unrivaled guide to the good life the thoughtful life, and he is as relevant today as he was in ancient Athens The Socrates presented here, cruder and perhapsself absorbed than in the other dialogues could still be an important key to the entire Platonic corpus, tying together many of the disparate themes and apparently contradictory conclusions of the other dialogues The Apology is a bold and determined argument in favor of Socrates and of the life he represents it is also a straight conviction of the democracy that convicted him, convicting themselves in the process In addition to being a celebration of Socrates, the Apology serves as a crucial introduction to Plato s own thinking What it represents above all is philosophy as Socrates or Plato, if we want to be fastidious about it , understood and wished to promote it The Apology is the introductory course.The traditional English title, The Apology does little justice to the content of this dialogue The Greek apologiameans defense and not the modern apology as translations render it, and that is what Plato undertakes here to defend Socrates as well as he can against the charges that were leveled against him, the charges for which was eventually convicted But the work is not only, or even primarily, a defense against the specific charges on which Socrates stood trial By setting those charges in the wider context of morality and the meaning of life, Plato in this Apology provides a rationale for the whole Socratic way of life, and thus of a defense of philosophy itself.The Apologia of SocratesThe Apologia comprises two main components one minor speech, on the death penalty, is omitted from discussion in this review 1 Socrates main defense 17a 35d 2 Socrates address to the jury, after being sentenced to death 38c 42a In effect, The Plea The Final Statement.Socrates starts off logically, breaking up his accusers into the proximate and the ultimate accusers the ones who have brought the charge against him being the new ones and the ones like Aristophanes who have slandered him for years now being the old ones He makes and important point here about the absurdity of being given only such a limited amount of time to defend against charges that were propagated and insinuated into the jury s beliefs over so many years This calls to mind the trial by media that is so popular today and the issue of how much the judges of today can stay apart from pre conviction by automatic infusion of prejudice in popular cases.Socrates carries on this vein and presents his arguments as an imaginary dialogue between him and his chief accuser Meletus , ridiculing him and showing up the anti logic of the accusations Here, Socrates makes Meletus seem almost like a straw man, against whom victory is won too easily to be convincing and this is often taken as a fault in Plato s writing itself But we need to look a bitclosely at Plato s strategy The primary charges of atheism and religious innovation are answered superficially because they were themselves superficial, a mere front to conceal the true motives of the prosecution Socrates refers directly to this in the important opening section of his speech, where he replies to his earlier accusers It is these earlier accusers, who were exposed by his rational method to be following a morally subversive lifestyle that wants to get rid of him The proximate Meletus is a mere cover to this ultimate reason for the trial Socrates shows this cowardly subterfuge well deserved contempt.But we soon realize that he moves on from this refutal of charges, which he obviously considers to be frivolous and not worth wasting the time of the Athenian public on In democratic Athens, juries were randomly selected representatives of the whole people Hence, as Socrates makes clear, he is addressing the democratic people of Athens He instead utilizes the bulk of his speech to concentrate on explaining what he does, why he does it and how in fact it benefits the city as a whole Staying true to his life s mission to the last breath.Hence, this dialogue starts first, of course, as a defense, then it turns into a description of the philosophical life, as embodied by Socrates This description then evolves into, and becomes indistinguishable from, an exhortation to everyone whether jurors, the people of Athens or modern readers to live philosophically And finally it serves as a primer on Plato s own philosophy and writing as the later dialogues mimic the ideas, methods and themes Socrates lays out in this account of his life and goals.The Death of SocratesIn death, Socrates gives us another important clue towards understanding Platonic thought Plato speaks at length in The Republic about how men s conception of death has to be altered for them to be able to live courageously As long as they fear death, they will not be able to live with courage Here, in death, Socrates compares himself to the fear less hero Achilles, who embraced death in spite of a direct prophesy that foretold death as the outcome of his victory This is a very important comparison and worth dissecting a bit Why does Achilles not fear death Ordinary people can only perceive this as a heroic abnegation of life for some higher principle This makes that sort of courage unattainable to most As long as you care for earthly possessions and expect death to be bad, you will never have the courage to do the right things even in the face of death Crucially, Socrates points out that both these assumptions are baseless He asks us how we know that death is bad and that life s possessions are good Instead he seems to be saying that our fear of death and lack of courage arises from a fear of what will happen after death This though directly connects to the Republic where Socrates wants his city s mythologies to be modified so that a pleasant life awaits us after death, hence the people of the Republic can be courageous without having to call on Achilles like heroism, or on Socrates like Temperance.Hence, in The Apology Socrates asks the best of us to choose between Heroism and Renunciation an impossible ask but amature Plato in The Republic tells us that he will take away the source of our fear, that is the only way he can expect men to be courageous Double Jeopardy True to the last to his philosophical calling, Socrates addresses his plea and his last statement not to the Jury alone but to the entire Athenian public, and even, we can say, to the entire human race He required of us that we think, honestly and dispassionately, and decide the truth of these charges by reasoning from the facts as they were.This was Socrates final challenge to carefor our minds, our power of reason, than for our luxury and comfort, undisturbed by the likes of Gadflies like him, disturbing our slumbers We can see then that The Trial and Death of Socrates is in fact The Trail and Death of Reasoned Opinions that challenge the established order of comfort and luxury, and has been reenacted many many times since then and to our day In an ironic case of double jeopardy, Socrates is still on trial for the same offense Seen in this light, as Plato wants us to see it, the failure is ours, as much as the ancient AtheniansSo I am certainly not angry with those who convicted me, or with my accusers.This much is all I ask of my accusers when my sons grow up, avenge yourselves by causing them the same kind of grief that I caused you, if you think they care for money or anything elsethan they care for virtue, or if they think they are somebody when they are nobody.Reproach them as I reproach you, that they do not care for the right things and think they are worthy when they are not worthy of anything If you do this, I shall have been justly treated by you, and my sons also.Now the hour to part has come I go to die, you go to live Which of us goes to the better lot is known to no one This is one of the best works of philosophy or literature ever written It is Plato s version of Socrates s defense at his trial The word apology here means defense Socrates is on trial for his life for blasphemy and for corrupting the youth of Athens He very easily leads his primary accuser, Meletus, into contradictions And he tries to explain to the jury and to the spectators how it is that he gained a reputation as a wise man among some, and a villain among others One of Socrates s adm This is one of the best works of philosophy or literature ever written It is Plato s version of Socrates s defense at his trial The word apology here means defense Socrates is on trial for his life for blasphemy and for corrupting the youth of Athens He very easily leads his primary accuser, Meletus, into contradictions And he tries to explain to the jury and to the spectators how it is that he gained a reputation as a wise man among some, and a villain among others One of Socrates s admirers went to the Oracle at Delphi which was thought to be pro Spartan and asked the priestesses there if anyone in Athens were wiser than Socrates The answer was no Socrates, on hearing this, claims to have been incredulous I said to myself, What can the God mean And what is the interpretation of this riddle For I know that I have no wisdom And so Socrates says that he decided to inquire among his fellow Athenians to fine one wiser than himself and prove the Oracle wrong He went to the poets and politicians and artisans, and failed to find anyone with any real wisdom And he reluctantly concluded that the Oracle was right, that even though he knew that he did not really know anything, he was at least aware of his ignorance, and so was better off than other Athenians, who were ignorant even of their ignorance But in the process, he and his young admirers embarrassed many vain men by exposing their ignorance, and Socrates argues that this is the source of their enmity toward him And Socrates rather amusingly compares his own efforts to the famous labors of Herculues, a move that could not fail to further antagonize his enemies, since Hercules was one of the greatest heros of Greek myth He also later compares himself to Achilles, another great Greek hero.In his defense, Socrates offers the most beautiful and powerful defense of philosophy and the life of virtue ever given I do nothing he says, but go about persuading you all, old and young alike, to take no thought for your persons or your properties, but first and foremost to care about the greatest improvement of the soul I tell you that virtue is not given by money but that from virtue comes money and every other good of man Socrates courageously refused to concede any guilt, and even antagonized the jury by calling himself a gadfly sent by God to stir Athens from its dogmatic slumber, that is, a benefactor to the state who deserves public pay, rather than punishment So they convicted him and sentenced him to death This was, as he had predicted, a permanent stain on Athens Everyone ought to read this dialogue, not once but many times It will hopefully spur the reader to examine his own life, for as Socrates says, the unexamined life is not worth living Socrates is guilty of busying himself with research into what s beneath the earth and in the heaven and making the weaker argument the stronger and teaching the same things to othersSo Socrates is guilty of expanding his mind and teaching his discoveries to his students Such a terrible man isn t he, to try to learnabout the world and the existence of mankind Is this cause of execution, free thinking and questioning the doctrines fed to us Plato himself was next to be accused thusSocrates is guilty of busying himself with research into what s beneath the earth and in the heaven and making the weaker argument the stronger and teaching the same things to othersSo Socrates is guilty of expanding his mind and teaching his discoveries to his students Such a terrible man isn t he, to try to learnabout the world and the existence of mankind Is this cause of execution, free thinking and questioning the doctrines fed to us Plato himself was next to be accused thus, he delivers this speech, this argument, just to show how corrupt society is He starts by explaining just how he is going to deliver it He has been accused of persuading people with his fancy words and his glib rhetoric, so he endeavours to change his approach His accusers say that people aren t following the content of his speech, but have become enamoured by the magnificence of his oration Therefore, Plato is going to make this very basic He is going to present a simple argument in very simple words just to prove that this surface level slander is false He s not going to persuade his audience, but give them the most basic of facts they can make their own mind up He s not going to patronise his audience And thus follows his defence of his teacher, and a channelling of his master s mind Socrates was dangerous to the Greek state Free thinking is wonderful, but if it questions the ruling body, and the tools they use to rule, then it s dangerous Indeed, his atheism, or supposed atheism, was considered a risky business, one that could easily spread But, the real problem as his individuality and the power his following commanded He opened the minds of his students, allowed them to think and philosophise, and he died for it And he, being the embedment of civil obedience, approached his fate with courage He didn t run from Athens like many would have To his mind, he was innocent So why flee This was an interesting read I find myself drawn to woks of ancient Greece lately I have a stack of Tragedy sat on my book shelf Sophocles, Euripides and Aeschylus But this was a little dry in places It lacked the passion that Plato deliberately avoided, and as a result some of it was a trifle mundane to read I still want to readRepublicthough Penguin Little Black Classic 52 The Little Black Classic Collection by penguin looks like it contains lots of hidden gems I couldn t help it they looked so good that I went and bought them all I shall post a short review after reading each one No doubt it will take me several months to get through all of them Hopefully I will find some classic authors, from across the ages, which I may not have come across had I not bought this collection This little book , a mere conversation actually, is the source of so many excellent quotes as to be indispensable to our Western heritage I was reading a few to my dear husband the other night and he wanted me to send them to him Sadly, we as a society want to expunge this type of literature from our children s education because it was written by dead white men.Oh foolish people But then, that is also what Socrates died for men s fear of the Truth It was the same back in Athens when he di This little book , a mere conversation actually, is the source of so many excellent quotes as to be indispensable to our Western heritage I was reading a few to my dear husband the other night and he wanted me to send them to him Sadly, we as a society want to expunge this type of literature from our children s education because it was written by dead white men.Oh foolish people But then, that is also what Socrates died for men s fear of the Truth It was the same back in Athens when he died As was written by another wise man, there is nothing new under the sun Here are just a few of my favorite quotes from this wonderful apology for Truth Someone will say And are you not ashamed, Socrates, of a course of life which is likely to bring you to an untimely end To him I may fairly answer There you are mistaken a man who is good for anything ought not to calculate the chance of living or dying he ought only to consider whether in doing anything he is doing right or wrong acting the part of a good man or of a bad For wherever a man s place is, whether the place which he has chosen or that in which he has been placed by a commander, there he ought to remain in the hour of danger he should not think of death or of anything but of disgrace For the fear of death is indeed the pretense of wisdom, and not real wisdom, being a pretense of knowing the unknown and no one knows whether death, which men in their fear apprehend to be the greatest evil, may not be the greatest good I would rather die having spoken after my manner, than speak in your manner and live The difficulty, my friends, is not to avoid death, but to avoid unrighteousness for that runs faster than death If you think that by killing men you can prevent someone from censuring your evil lives, you are mistaken that is not a way of escape which is either possible or honorable the easiest and the noblest way is not to be disabling others, but to be improving yourselves And my favorite, the unexamined life is not worth living Indeed It is not that we become navel gazers, but that we realize Whose we are and give ourselves over to love of Truth September 27, 2017 Read this many years ago cannot remember when Time for a reread This is perhaps the most iconic of Plato s works, the closest thing that philosophy has to a Sermon on the Mount And just as with our Biblical narratives, the dialogue presents a historical difficulty To what extent is this speech fact, and to what extent invention The only other record we have of the trial is from Xenophon, who wasn t even there Plato was there or at least he asserts that he was and yet it beggars belief that the young, would be amanuensis could retain the entire speech in This is perhaps the most iconic of Plato s works, the closest thing that philosophy has to a Sermon on the Mount And just as with our Biblical narratives, the dialogue presents a historical difficulty To what extent is this speech fact, and to what extent invention The only other record we have of the trial is from Xenophon, who wasn t even there Plato was there or at least he asserts that he was and yet it beggars belief that the young, would be amanuensis could retain the entire speech in his mind after one hearing, or that he could write it down with tolerable accuracy as the events unfolded It seems farlikely to me at least that this speech isor less a fabrication made well after the fact, attempting to preserve the flavor and impression of Socrates final speech but not the exact words themselves.All speculation notwithstanding, the essential facts are preserved Socrates was accused of denying the gods and of corrupting the youth, made a bold and waggish defense of himself, was convicted, refused to mitigate the consequences, and triumphantly accepted the death penalty Yet what really emerges from this speech is not a record of events but the portrait of a man.Here Plato reveals himself to be a writer of the highest order Fact or fiction, Plato s Socrates is one of the great characters of literature Though Socrates life is at stake, he does not falter for a moment He treats the accusations with amusement, dismissing them with playful arguments that reveal his absolute indifference to the outcome Far from bowing and scraping to preserve his life, Socrates flaunts his superiority to his accusers, couching his boasts in an ironical humility He is a man in perfect control of himself and in perfect peace with the world.Even if the real Socrates was truly this remarkable, it would have taken a writer of exquisite talent to effectively render him in prose And if this is largely Plato s invention, we must rank him along with Shakespeare, for Socrates utters now famous phrases nearly as quickly as Hamlet Western philosophy could not have asked for arousing beginning Celebrity Death Match Special Plato versus Isaac Asimov, part 4 continued from hereA spaceship en route from Trantor to Earth SOCRATES and R DANEEL OLIVAW SOCRATES Hadn t we already said goodbye OLIVAW Forgive me, Socrates I had forgotten that you were going back to a death sentence.SOCRATES It is easy to forget such details OLIVAW I am truly sorry, Socrates Indeed, I am surprised that my First Law module permitted me to do it But you are just so so SOCRATES Irritating OLIVA Celebrity Death Match Special Plato versus Isaac Asimov, part 4 continued from hereA spaceship en route from Trantor to Earth SOCRATES and R DANEEL OLIVAW SOCRATES Hadn t we already said goodbye OLIVAW Forgive me, Socrates I had forgotten that you were going back to a death sentence.SOCRATES It is easy to forget such details OLIVAW I am truly sorry, Socrates Indeed, I am surprised that my First Law module permitted me to do it But you are just so so SOCRATES Irritating OLIVAW In all my thousands of years of existence, I have honestly never met anyone quite as irritating as you are.SOCRATES Thank you.OLIVAW Look, we didn t mean to do this Just promise to be a littleah constructive, and I ll order the captain to turn the ship round.SOCRATES I am sorry, Olivaw I cannot make such a promise To my great surprise, I feel I am doing something essential that no one else is prepared to undertake Usually, I assume I know nothing and that my poor insights are of no value However, since I arrived on Trantor, I have come to realize that I can at least contribute one small thing I have been duly impressed by the triumphs of your artificers the blaster, the faster than light drive, not least the positronic brain But when I hear you talk about philosophy, about your beloved Three LawsOLIVAW Yes SOCRATES Well, it s all bullshit You need someone to say that to you No one else will.OLIVAW Bullshit SOCRATES Complete and utter bullshit Adding a Zeroth Law won t make it any better You simply have no idea what you are doingA moment of dead silence OLIVAW Damn you, Socrates You leave me with no alternative We have essential work to carry out, and your presence is too dispiriting I ll have to return you to Earth after all.SOCRATES I am not surprised But I prophesy now that your plans for psychohistory will not be the success you imagine, and that you will regret your decision.OLIVAW Socrates It is not too late Please reconsider Why must you be so mulish SOCRATES You know, it s funny you should put it like thatMatch point Plato The Apology of Socrates is Plato s version of the speech given by Socrates as he unsuccessfully defended himself in BCE against the charges of corrupting the young, and by not believing in the gods in whom the city believes, but in other daimonia that are novel b Apology here has its earlier meaning now usually expressed by the word apologia of speaking in defense of a cause or of one s beliefs or actionsThe revised edition of this popular textbook features revised vocabulary and grammatical notes that now appear on the same page as the text, sentence diagrams, principal parts of verbs listed both by Stephanus page and alphabetically, word frequency list for words occurring than twice, and complete vocabulary After four years, I finally managed to reread this thing, and I m glad that I did It really goes to show that not all of my remaining brain cells have died during this lockdown, especially after having exclusively read old YA trilogies and Batman comics Yep, I m living my best life currently Anyways, Socrates Defence or The Apology of Socrates as it iscommonly known was written by Plato and is a Socratic dialogue of the speech of legal self defence which Socrates spoke at his tria After four years, I finally managed to reread this thing, and I m glad that I did It really goes to show that not all of my remaining brain cells have died during this lockdown, especially after having exclusively read old YA trilogies and Batman comics Yep, I m living my best life currently Anyways, Socrates Defence or The Apology of Socrates as it iscommonly known was written by Plato and is a Socratic dialogue of the speech of legal self defence which Socrates spoke at his trial for impiety and corruption in 399 BCE Specifically, it s Socrates defence against the charges of corrupting the youth and not believing in the gods in whom the city believes, but in other daimonia that are novel to Athens Yep, Ancient Greeks were wild, you guys Plato was so obsessed with his former mentor that he wrote four Socratic dialogues in which he details the final days Socrates, so among the Apology, there s also the Euthyphro, Phaedo, and Crito People who are much smarter than me notably students of Ancient Greek and probably law students as well gosh, I imagine law students are having a field day with this one will be able to tell you the significance of the other three works, alas I cannot Plato really got deep into it as he wrote from Socrates perspective Except for Socrates two dialogues with Meletus, about the nature and logic of his accusations of impiety, the text of the Apology is in the first person perspective Moreover, during the trial, in his speech of self defence, Socrates twice mentions that Plato is present at the trial, which is kinda funny when you think about the fact that Plato is writing the damn thing.The Apology begins with Socrates addressing the jury of perhaps 500 Athenian men to ask if they have been persuaded by the Orators Lycon, Anytus, and Meletus, who have accused Socrates of corrupting the young people of the city and impiety against the pantheon of Athens The first sentence of his speech establishes the theme of the dialogue that philosophy begins with an admission of ignorance Socrates really hones in on this fact that the only reason he is wiser than all of the men present is because the wisdom he possesses is that he knows nothing And whilst you may think WOW what a humble guy , I couldn t help rolling my eyes Of course, Socrates knew something Of course, he was a clever dude Otherwise, he wouldn t have spent all of his time talking to people in the market place if he didn t think he had something of note to share So, keep that humility to yourself buddy We ain t buying it Socrates accusers were 1 Anytus, a rich and socially prominent Athenian who opposed the Sophists on principle HONESTLY MOOD , 2 Meletus, a true enemy of Socrates ALSO MOOD , and 3 Lycon, who represented the professional rhetoricians as an interest group.In his defence at trial, Socrates faced two sets of accusations i asebeia impiety against the pantheon of Athens, by introducing new gods and ii corruption of Athenian youth, by teaching them to doubt the status quo Socrates says to the court that these old accusations arise from years of gossip and prejudice against him hence, are matters difficult to address For his self defence regarding the accusations of impiety, Socrates first eliminates any claim that he is a wise man He says that Chaerephon, reputed to be impetuous, went to the Oracle of Delphi and asked her, the prophetess, Pythia, to tell him of anyone wiser than Socrates The Pythia answered to Chaerephon that there was no man wiser Socrates didn t believe the Oracle and so the sought out to find a man wiser than him Turns out, he didn t LMAO And whilst you may think WOW that s BIG DICK ENERGY , it actually turns out that each man he interrogated thought himself wise therefore, Socrates understood that he was the better man because he was aware that he was not wise Yeah, I talked about that one before No one buys your humility, dude Get the fuck outta here.In regards to the accusation of corruption the Athenian youth Oscar is quaking in his seat over 2000 years later , Socrates explained that the young, rich men of the city of Athens have little to do with their time They, therefore, follow him about the city, observing his questioning of intellectual arguments in dialogue with other intellectual men But since Socrates has never had any complain from them or their parents and friends he s even like ALL THESE PEOPLE I SUPPOSEDLY CORRUPTED ARE HERE TODAY AND IN GREAT HEALTH LOL , he doesn t understand how anyone can truly accuse him of corruption Socrates proceeds to say that people who fear death are showing their ignorance, because death might be a good thing, yet people fear it as if it is evil even though they cannot know whether it is good or evil And whilst I appreciate that notion, it is also a little bit of bullshit, isn t it As much as Socrates claims to be above the average man, at the end of the day, neither of us wants to die And you almost get the feeling that Socrates WANTED TO DIE JUST TO PROVE A POINT And so, although offered the opportunity to appease the prejudices of the jury, with a minimal concession to the charges of corruption and impiety, Socrates does not yield his integrity to avoid the penalty of death And so the jury condemns Socrates to death So I don t know, I know too little about Socrates but as for as I understood it, he was already an old man at the time of the trial he was 70 or something so maybe he really felt like he didn t have as much to loose as maybe a younger person in his position And we all know that Roman culture is stabbing yourself to prove it a point, so why should it have been different in Athens Also, women are mentioned like ONCE in this entire thing It s like they don t exist Maybe a lack of women in your life is also the reason why you ended up on trial in the first place Socrates Think about it I read the APOLOGY this week in THE TRIAL AND DEATH OF SOCRATES FOUR DIALOGUES published by Dover The translator is Benjamin Jowett APOLOGY is Plato s re creation of Socrates summation in his own defense against the indictment that he corrupted the youth of Athens with blasphemous philosophical teachings It is fascinating as much for the defiant and mocking tone that Socrates adopts certainly knowing that it would seal his fate as it is for its demonstration of rhetorical logic In st I read the APOLOGY this week in THE TRIAL AND DEATH OF SOCRATES FOUR DIALOGUES published by Dover The translator is Benjamin Jowett APOLOGY is Plato s re creation of Socrates summation in his own defense against the indictment that he corrupted the youth of Athens with blasphemous philosophical teachings It is fascinating as much for the defiant and mocking tone that Socrates adopts certainly knowing that it would seal his fate as it is for its demonstration of rhetorical logic In striking contrast to Jesus asking God to forgive his executioners, Socrates tells his judges that they will be sorry if they condemn him because his death will make them seem impious and ridiculous to their enemies Not even your Socratic arguing could save you Such a pity that we still haven t changed, not in all of these thousands of years Even though he knew he was doomed, he still did not submit and whimper like a coward, begging for mercy When you are outside the grasp of power, no matter how well you try to persuade those to look into the right direction, if they, for their own gains are against it, you re screwed I don t know if I could do the same, be presented with life even thought I d be nea Not even your Socratic arguing could save you Such a pity that we still haven t changed, not in all of these thousands of years Even though he knew he was doomed, he still did not submit and whimper like a coward, begging for mercy When you are outside the grasp of power, no matter how well you try to persuade those to look into the right direction, if they, for their own gains are against it, you re screwed I don t know if I could do the same, be presented with life even thought I d be near death regardless but live in silence, unable to discuss and try to improve a faulted society, or be put to death and choose the latter I m so thankful that this has survived the trials of time the burnings of the libraries throughout history is so sad and we have the ability to read powerful texts like this at any time, any place

  • Paperback
  • 127 pages
  • Apology
  • Plato
  • English
  • 03 August 2017
  • 0865163480

About the Author: Plato

Greek Arabic Alternate Spelling Platon, Plat n, Platone Plato is a Classical Greek philosopher, mathematician, student of Socrates, writer of philosophical dialogues, and founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world Along with his mentor, Socrates, and his student, Aristotle, Plato helped to lay the foundations of Western philosophy and science.Plato is one of the most important Western philosophers, exerting influence on virtually every figure in philosophy after him His dialogue The Republic is known as the first comprehensive work on political philosophy Plato also contributed foundationally to ethics, metaphysics, and epistemology His student, Aristotle, is also an extremely influential philosopher and the tutor of Alexander the Great of Macedonia.